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Types and structures of electric bicycles
JIANSHE2022-02-21303
Electric bicycles can be divided into two categories: 

All-electric and smart-assist types:

1. All-electric bicycle: You can ride on foot, or you can drive by pure electric power without manpower, use the handlebar to control the speed, and realize the stepless speed change of 0-20 km/h.

2. Intelligent power-assisted electric bicycle: It has a similar operation mode to ordinary bicycles, which can be driven by human power or powered by electricity, and has no pure electric function. It is mainly based on human power and supplemented by electricity. The size of the human riding force is controlled by the size of the current supply, so as to realize the combination of human power and electric power, and the riding feels relaxed. When the design speed is reached, the power supply stops.

The basic composition of an electric bicycle:

Electric bicycles are composed of five major parts: vehicle body, electric drive device (motor), rechargeable battery, charger and control system. Different types of vehicles have different battery placement positions and controller forms.

1. Body: As the national standard stipulates that the electric drive mode of electric bicycles generally has three categories

(1) Friction transmission type: The wheel on the motor shaft is directly loaded on the tire, and it is driven by friction. It has the advantages of simple structure and low cost, but the tire wears a lot, and it is easy to slip in the rainy season.

(2) Center axle drive type: The electric motor is specially designed at the center axle of the frame, the center axle is driven by the deceleration mechanism, and then the center axle drives the rear wheel through the chain. The advantage is that the motor has a reasonable center of gravity and can use the bicycle deceleration system to shift gears, but the mechanical loss is large.

electric bike

(3) Electric hub type: The motor is installed in the hub of the wheel, which can be installed in the front wheel or the rear wheel. The hub is connected with the wheel by the spokes, which directly drives the wheel to rotate. Its advantages are small size, light weight, low energy consumption and high efficiency, but it is difficult to lubricate the motor and transmission gear. At present, most domestic electric bicycles are in this way.

Motors are divided into two categories: brushless motors and brushed motors. The brushless motor is mainly a low-speed and high-torque motor, without transmission gears, which avoids mechanical wear and almost no noise during operation, but the brushless motor has a large impact on the starting current, and the control system structure is complex. Brush life, high efficiency, simple control system electronic circuit

2. Rechargeable batteries: There are three main types of batteries for electric bicycles, namely small sealed maintenance lead-acid batteries, Jin-cadmium batteries and Jin-hydrogen batteries. Small sealed maintenance-free lead-acid batteries with low cost and large capacity are widely used by domestic enterprises.

3. Charger: The charger design adopts three-stage automatic conversion mode of constant current, constant voltage and floating charge, which protects the battery and effectively prolongs the battery life.

4. Control system: The control system is designed with a number of protection functions, such as volume display. Stepless speed regulation, soft start, undervoltage protection, overcurrent protection and brake power off, etc. Protect the motor and the battery, so that the current can be output effectively to generate the required power without burning the motor. At present, most of the electric bicycles developed in China use the manual speed control handle to determine the power supply method by themselves.

The above content introduces the types and structures of electric bicycles for you! As a professional electric bicycle brand, JIANSHE brand believes that we can bring you a good riding experience.